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Welcome to Challenge Solutions

Hello, and welcome to Challenge Solutions. This website is created and maintained by a group of blind students for blind students and their teachers. Our mission is to provide lessons about life and technology for the blind and visually impaired via our blog, podcast, and YouTube channel. To have our latest activity around the Internet sent to your inbox, please subscribe to this blog at the bottom of the page. If you have questions for us or suggestions for future content, please reach out via the contact form in the top menu.

Gift Ideas for the Blind and Visually Impaired

You don’t necessarily have to go out of your way to find a blindness-specific gift for the blind or visually impaired person in your life. You can pretty much give blind people anything you would give a sighted person as long as it can be appreciated without vision. Blind people appreciate Amazon gift cards as much as the next person. However, the following list contains some suggestions for super special gifts that you might want to give the blind person in your life.


1. Adapted games. You can find accessible versions of most mainstream games like Uno, Chess, and Monopoly. Accessible games can be an excellent gift, especially for younger blind children, because it allows them to participate fully in game time with family and friends.

2. Apple devices. If you’re looking for something at a higher price point, Apple devices can help the blind person in your life be successful and independent in many aspects of life. All Apple devices are completely accessible due to a built-in screen reader called Voiceover. If you’re buying for a younger child, the iPod Touch can be a good starting point. The iPad is useful for blind people of all ages, and the iPhone is extremely beneficial for older blind children and adults. The Apple Watch is also an excellent gift for blind people who already have an iPhone and want to track their fitness goals and other health related information.

3. Headphones. Blind people can never have enough headphones. Apple’s AirPods are a good multipurpose option for most blind people who use iPhone’s and/or other Apple products. They have good audio quality but don’t block so much sound that they interfeer with the blind person’s ability to hear their surroundings. Bone conduction headphones are excellent for blind people who spend a lot of time traveling independently and need a good way to hear their phone while also listening to traffic. AfterShokz is a good brand that works well with Voiceover. You might also consider getting them something from the Beats line as all of the Beats headphones work very well with Voiceover. However, Beats headphones are meant to be used for music and audio books and will not be suitable for navigation or completing basic tasks with technology. Try to avoid buying bluetooth headphones that are not Apple branded in some way as many off-brand bluetooth headphones do not play nice with Voiceover and other screen readers. Cheap wired earbuds are also always useful.

4. Mighty Mug. The Mighty Mug looks like a normal travel mug but has a suction cup on the bottom to prevent it from falling over. Once it is placed on a table, it can’t be knocked over; it has to be lifted straight up. This is an excellent gift for anyone who works around a lot of technology and likes having a drink close at hand.

5. Smart home devices like the Amazon Echo, Google Home, or Apple HomePod. The Amazon Echo will have the most integrations with services and other smart home devices. The Google Home is very similar to the Echo but slightly better at certain skills. The Apple HomePod has the best audio quality but the fewest integrations with other services.

6. Braille jewelry. There are many online shops that sell customizable braille jewelry. This can be a super special gift for the blind person in your life.

7. Way Tags. Way Tags are labels that can be read with an app using Voiceover. Once you’ve written text to the tag, you can have Voiceover read the label by tapping the tag with the top of the phone while the app is open. The tags come in many different styles like buttons for clothing, clips, magnets, and stickers, and they can be used in many different contexts.

8. Tiles and other bluetooth trackers. Tiles are small devices that can be attached to keys, canes, wallets, and other things that people lose often. You can use an app to make the devices play a sound in order to locate the lost objects, and you can ring your phone using your Tile in the event that you lose your phone.

10. Audio books. Not all blind people are readers, but many blind people love listening to audio books. Consider gifting the blind person in your life an audio book or a gift card so they can purchase their own audio book and play it on a device of their choice.

Tips for Paraprofessionals with Blind and Visually Impaired Students

In this video, Macy gives ten tips for paraprofessionals working with blind and visually impaired students. The following list is a summary of the video.


Note: The need for a classroom aid should be decided on a case-by-case basis. All blind students do not need a para pro, and each student who does need extra help will need an individualized plan of action.

Tip 1: Maintain communication with the TVI. Every student’s needs are going to be different. The TVI should be able to give specific guidelines as to how best to help. TVI’s also have access to resources that might benefit the student and his or her teachers.

Tip 2: Let the Student be as Independent as Possible. If there is a way for them to do it on their own, they should be doing it on their own. It may be hard for the student to complete some activities independently, and it may take twice as long, but they will gain valuable skills by performing their daily tasks without help.

Tip 3: Let the student mess up. This applies to playing on the playground, walking to class, completing assignments, and almost every other aspect of life. It is important to remember that sighted students fall down and make mistakes every day, and a blind student is no different. Independence means messing up sometimes, but every mistake is an opportunity to learn.

Tip 4: Hang back when the student socializes. Every student has different social needs, but most blind individuals are capable of socializing with people their age without assistance. Some may need encouragement, but once they are with their peers, they should be left alone to have conversations and form bonds independently.

Tip 5: Don’t talk down to the student. Blindness is considered a disability, but being blind does not make a person any less capable of carrying on a normal conversation. Talking to a blind student more slowly, loudly, or simply than any other student is unnecessary and degrading.

Tip 6: Don’t walk on eggshells. Blindness is nothing to be ashamed of. It is ok to ask blind students questions about their vision and encourage them to talk about it. Blindness is a part of who the student is, and it probably always will be, so it is best for everyone to become comfortable with the subject.

Tip 7: Let others ask questions. No one should be scolded or punished for bringing up the topic of blindness. Punishing a student for discussing blindness is only going to make everyone more apprehensive around the blind student. Instead, questions should be encourage. Have the student read in braille to the class or blindfold their sighted peers and have them perform simple tasks. Then open the floor for questions. This encourages conversation about blindness and makes everyone more comfortable around the visually impaired student.

Tip 8: Let the teacher teach. By law, the teacher is required to prepare materials for and explain concepts to the blind student. There may be gaps to fill in, and the student’s education is always the first priority, but the teacher should be encouraged to interact with the blind student.

Tip 9: Encourage self-advocacy. Advocacy is one of the most important skills that a visually impaired person can have, and students should be practicing this from a young age. Have the student tell the teacher if they do not understand a concept or if an assignment is not modified correctly. Make them explain exactly what they need. Confrontation may be hard for them at first, but it will help them in the end to be able to articulate exactly what they need.

Tip 10: Constantly be teaching the student more skills that will help them be independent. If there is something the student cannot do on their own, teach them how. Find a way for them to do it independently, and be patient while they learn. The goal is for the student to eventually be an independent member of society, so it s important to prepare them for that as much as possible.

Submitting Assignments in Google Classroom for iOs

 In this video, Macy gives a tutorial on submitting assignments in Google Classroom for iOs and describes the various options for assignment submission. The following post lists the options for submitting in Classroom and when to use each.


Drive: This option allows you to submit files from your Google Drive. You can submit any file type in this way, as long as you have uploaded it to Drive.

Link: This opens a textfield where you can paste any URL.

File: This allows you to select from the Files app on your device. It is very important that you are familiar with your file hierarchy and know where your document is saved because Files typically opens within a folder that you use often.

Pick Photo: This allows you to select photos from your device’s camera roll. Blind students may need help with this as pictures are not labeled.

Use Camera: This opens the camera on your device and allows you to take pictures and videos to attach to your assignment.

New Doc: This option will automatically launch the Google Docs app. It will place you in a document that is already named and attached to your assignment. When you turn the assignment in, the document will be automatically shared with your teacher. The new Slide and new Sheet options work in the same way.

New PDF: This opens a virtual canvas where students can draw on the screens of their devices. It is completely inaccessible for blind students.

Halloween Activities for Blind and Visually Impaired Children

In this video, Macy gives some examples of Halloween activities that blind and visually impaired children can enjoy with parents, teachers, and friends. Below is a list of these activities. 


Carving or Painting Pumpkins: If your child is young, you can do all the carving and let them scoop out the inside of the pumpkin and pick out the seeds for baking. When you’re finished carving, let the child feel the face or picture on the pumpkin, and you can place the candle inside together. If your child or student is a little older, you can guide their hand and cut the outlines of the shapes together. Another option is to use puff paint to outline the face of a jack-o-lantern and let your child or student fill in the shapes with flat, black paint. 

Hay Rides: Hay rides are a common activity for Halloween parties and fall festivals, and they can be fun for blind and sighted children. A parent or teacher might want to accompany the visually impaired child for their first ride, but after that, if sighted children are riding alone, it is probably perfectly fine to let your blind child or student ride alone. Just be sure to orient them to the trailer before the other children get on. 

Bonfires: Along the same lines, bonfires are fall activities that people all over the world enjoy, and this should not be any different for a blind child. Let your child hold a stick and roast a marshmallow. Let him or her smell the smoke and feel the warmth of the fire, and if the child is young, teach them about fire safety, and show them how to stay a safe distance away from the heat. Invite some friends and family members to join in on the fun, and allow your child to socialize. Maybe play some fun party games and make it an event. 

Decorating: Whether you’re decorating a house or a classroom, preparing an area for fall can be a fun learning opportunity for blind children. Keep in mind that children with low vision cannot see decorations in houses, classrooms, and stores. They may not understand which places are appropriate for which decorations, so decorating together gives you the perfect opportunity to teach those skills

Halloween Scavenger Hunt: Hide some braille clues around a large area, such as a house or park, and be sure one clue leads to the next. If sighted students are playing, print out braille decoder sheets for them. You can hand out prizes at the end of the hunt or make it a competition to see who reaches the end first. To add a Halloween twist, place slime, plastic spiders, or other spooky items around the clues for the kids to feel. 

Skeleton Game: Buy some plastic skeletons, and be sure their heads and limbs are detachable. Take the skeletons apart and place the pieces of each in its own bag. Blindfold any sighted children, and hand the bags out. The first person to put their skeleton together correctly wins the game. 

Texture Games: Mix two types of Halloween materials together in a big bowl, such as candy corn and plastic spiders. Blindfold any sighted players, and give each player a small bag. The goal of the game is to pick out one type of material and not the other. For example, each piece of candy corn in a child’s bag might be worth one point, and each spider might be negative five points. The person with the most points at the end wins. You can make this game harder by changing the materials (for example, using similar candy bars) or by only allowing the players to use one hand. 

Make Costumes: This activity will look different for everyone. Find a costume idea, and have your blind child or student help make it. This could be an opportunity to teach sewing, gluing, knot-tying, and many other valuable skills. 

Read Books and Watch Movies: A lot of the Halloween culture today is based off of popular books and movies. Be sure that any child who is interested has the opportunity to experience this part of our culture. The American Printing House for the Blind and bookshare.org are two good resources for finding popular books in braille, and Halloween movies with audio descriptions can be found on streaming services such as Netflix and Disney+. However, many blind children prefer to read and watch movies with family members and friends, so you can take turns reading aloud and describe your movies verbally. 

Tips for Science Teachers with Blind or Visually Impaired Students

In this video, Caitlyn provides ten tips for science teachers with blind or visually impaired students. Below, you will find a written list of the tips along with links to the resources mentioned in the video.


1. Maintain constant communication with your student and their TVI, (teacher of the visually impaired). Try to get your lesson plans to the tVI ahead of time so that they can evaluate the assignments for accessibility and modify them as needed. Remember that all blind people are different, just like all sighted people are different. Each blind or visually impaired student is going to have a unique set of strengths, weaknesses, and needs. These tips can serve as general guidelines for making your classroom accessible and inclusive, but only your student and their TVI can tell you how to best meet the needs of your particular student in any given situation.

2. Be descriptive when you are teaching. Some science classes can have a lot of visual elements, and it is important to provide your blind student with context for what is going on visually. Make sure you describe any pertinent visual aspects of experiments like light, color, motion, etc. You may also need to describe the visual layout of equations and charts. Your student’s TVI can provide tactile graphics as needed. just make sure you get the material to the TVI at least a week in advance so they have plenty of time to adapt it.

3. Use accessible materials. Many online programs like IXL and Kahoot are not accessible for blind students. If you plan on using these tools in your classroom, you will need to work with your student’s TVI to come up with alternative assignments for your blind student. One option is to have your blind student do work out of the textbook while your sighted students complete interactive online activities, or your student’s TVI may be able to create accessible copies of the assignments.

4. Use tactile manipulatives whenever possible. There are many kits available that contain tactile graphics, braille charts, and print/braille numbers and symbols that can be used to demonstrate concepts to your blind student. Plastic skeletons, fake or real plants, and models of the solar system can be beneficial for your blind student as well as your sighted students. The more hands-on you can be, the more your blind student will take away from your class. The following links will take you to some useful braille and tactile resources:

5. Make sure experiments are accessible and inclusive. Many experiments are not useful for blind students because they require the observation of color and other visual elements. Try to choose experiments that your blind students can hear and touch, and make sure you describe what is happening visually in detail. If you have your students working in groups to complete experiments, one option is to have the sighted students describe their research findings in detail, and the blind student can be responsible for recording the data and turning in the worksheet. You will need to consult your student and their TVI on a case by case basis for experiments in order to modify them as needed. Each visually impaired student is at a different skill level, so some may be more comfortable participating directly in experiments than others. For instance, some visually impaired students are perfectly capable and comfortable measuring and pouring liquids for experiments, while others would rather be the notetaker for the group or be given an alternate assignment.

6. lessen your blind student’s workload for some assignments. It is not necessary to modify all assignments, but some things like reading tactile graphics, solving equations, and looking things up on the periodic table are very time consuming for blind students. If the assignment requires solving equations or reading charts, there is no need to make your blind student answer a hundred questions if they can master the concept by answering ten.

7. Work one-on-one with your blind student as needed. Some concepts will be more difficult for your blind student to grasp, and they may need some supplemental instruction using tactile manipulatives.

8. Adapt group projects as needed. Many sighted students do not understand how to interact with blind students in a constructive way, and asking your blind student to participate in group projects that require a lot of math or visual elements can sometimes be detrimental to both your blind student and the sighted students n the group. Work with your student’s TVI on a case by case basis to determine whether or not each group project is appropriate for your blind student and adapt it as needed.

9. Provide descriptions for images and videos as well as video transcripts. Make sure you describe any visual elements of videos that aren’t apparent based on the narration, and describe any images and charts that you use in class. you can also have your student’s TVI create tactile representations of images. It can be difficult for blind students to follow videos, so having a transcript that they can read and keyword search is very beneficial.

10. Challenge your blind student just as you would any other student. Some elements of science classes are extremely difficult without vision, but blind students are perfectly capable of succeeding in the STEM field if the proper accommodations are made.

An Introduction to the Focus 40 Blue Refreshable Braille Display

In this video, Caitlyn provides an introduction to the Focus 40 Blue’s features and briefly explains the functionality of each of the buttons.

A Comparison of Three Screen Readers: JAWS, NVDA, and Voiceover

In this video, Caitlyn compares and contrasts the top three screen readers: JAWS, NVDA, and Voiceover.

Tips for Math Teachers with Blind or Visually Impaired Students

In this video, Caitlyn shares ten tips for math teachers with blind or visually impaired students. These tips are primarily directed at elementary and high school math teachers, but some can be applied to college professors as well. Below, you will find a written summary of the tips.


1. Be descriptive. Make sure that your lessons can be followed with no visual context. Vague visual statements like, “We’ll move this over here,” are not helpful for blind and visually impaired students. Be specific about what you are doing with the numbers on which side of the equation.

2. Make sure you get all of your course materials to your student’s TVI, (teacher of the visually impaired). Your student’s TVI will be able to evaluate the materials to determine whether or not they will work for the student in question and adapt them as needed. It is crutial to get the materials to the TVI at least a week in advance because converting math assignments into braille and creating tactile graphics is very time consuming.

3. Make sure that your blind or visually impaired student understands the visual layout of math problems. This may sound contradictory, but math is a very visual subject, and your blind student needs to have some degree of context for what is happening visually. If they don’t know what an equation looks like, balancing both sides of the equation won’t make much sense. If your student is a braille reader, it is extremely important that they both read and solve the majority of their math problems in hard copy braille on paper so that they can fully grasp the layout of things. Failing to understand this early on will make more advanced math classes extremely difficult.

4. Be hands on. Make sure you are working with your blind student in a way that they can understand. Bring in manipulatives to explain concepts in a more tangible way. Show your student a cube and explain how the sides of the 3D object relate to the two dimensional representation of a cube on a page, (your student’s TVI can create the tactile graphic for this). You might also consider using a Math Window so that you and your blind student can solve problems together. A Math Window is a magnetic panel with print/braille numbers and symbols. This should not be used as a replacement for solving problems in braille on paper, but it can be useful for teaching new concepts and making sure your blind students understand how to solve problems without the delay of waiting on a TVI to translate braille assignments.

5. Use accessible resources. Online programs like IXL and Kahoot will not work for your blind student. If you plan on using these tools in your classroom, you will need to work with your student’s TVI to come up with alternative assignments for your blind student.

6. Work one-on-one with your blind student. It will most likely take your blind student longer to fully grasp certain mathematical concepts because they are so visual. It may be necessary to work one-on-one with your blind student before and/or after class to ensure that they understand the layout of the problems, know how to set them up in braille, and understand the process for solving them. It can be beneficial for some students to have your student’s TVI braille a list of the steps needed to solve each type of problem. You may also wish to use a Math Window to present visual concepts like factor trees to ensure that your student understands what they are before you discuss them in class with your sighted students. Even if you are being specific with your descriptions, your blind student most likely will not be able to keep up with everything you do in class without supplemental instruction.

7. Familiarize yourself and your blind student with the TI-84 graphing calculator. The only accessible graphing calculator is the Orion TI-84 Plus which is a version of the TI-84 that has been modified to provide auditory feedback for the blind. This is the calculator that your blind student will be expected to use on the ACT and any other standardized math test.

8. Be careful with group projects. In general, it is best to avoid group projects in math classes with blind students. Most sighted students do not understand how to communicate mathematical concepts in a way that blind students can understand. Putting your blind student in a group of sighted students who don’t know how to interact with them can set both your blind student and the sighted students in their group further behind. If you wish to have group projects in your class, it could provide an opportunity to work one-on-one with your blind student while your sighted students work in groups. You can consider having your blind student participate in group projects if the projects involves a concept that the blind student understands very well, and/or if you have a group of sighted students who will work well with your blind student. This is something to discuss with your blind student and their TVI.

9. Lessen your blind student’s work-load when possible. It takes blind students a long time to solve math problems. One algebra problem might take your blind student an hour and six sheets of braille paper to solve. If they can demonstrate that they understand the concept and can apply it to a variety of problems by solving ten problems, there is no need to make them solve a hundred problems.

10. Challenge your blind student. Being blind makes math difficult, but it does not make it impossible. Some blind students go on to work in computer science and other STEM fields. while you should give them fewer problems when possible, you should also give them problems of progressing complexity just as you would your sighted students as they demonstrate that they are ready for them. They will definitely hate you in the moment for making them spend their Saturdays solving seemingly impossible math problems in braille, but they will probably eventually thank you for not simply letting them pass because they are blind. Equality does not just mean providing equal access to educational materials; it also means providing equivalent challenges. I am forever grateful to all of the teachers who pushed me to do more than most of the sighted world believed I could.

Example Emails to College Representatives

As you prepare to make decisions about where to attend college or university, it is important that you reach out to the institutions you are considering to ask questions about your accommodations and gain general knowledge about the college or university from a representative. In the video below, Macy shares her personal experiences and gives advice on when and how blind and visually impaired students should go about contacting colleges. 

 

Click here for the video. 

 


To supplement the video, we have drafted some examples of well-written emails to college representatives. Feel free to base your own emails off these templates. 

 

Email to Admissions 

 

Hello, 

I am a Senior at Nonexistent High School, and I am considering attending the University of Nowhere after graduation. I am legally blind, and I have some questions regarding my accommodations, as well as some general questions about your university. Is there a time when I can call you to discuss these? 

 

Thank you, 

John Doe 

 

Email to Disability Services 

 

Hello, 

I am a Senior at Nonexistent High School, and I am considering attending the University of Nowhere after I graduate this coming May. I am legally blind, and I have received several specific accommodations throughout my elementary and high school education. I hope to make the transition to college as smooth as possible, so I would like to speak with you about my current accommodations and needs. Is there a time when we can meet virtually to discuss my accommodations and your policies regarding students with visual impairments? ? 

 

Thank you,

Jane Doe 

College Research Tips for Blind Students

In this video, Macy provides tips for researching colleges. Below, you will find a worksheet that will help you keep track of important information about the colleges you are interested in.


College Research Worksheet

  • College/university:
  • City:
  • Average tuition: (if out of state for Arkansas students)

Location:

  • Distance from home:
  • Public transportation:
  • City/campus layout:
  • Friends/relatives in the area:
  • Other notes:

Admissions office contact info:

  • Email:
  • Phone number:

Questions for admissions:

  • Get information about your degree program and disability services.
  • Will there be any campus/virtual tours that you could attend?
  • Get any relevant contact information that wasn’t accessible via the web site.

Your thoughts:

  • Did they take time to answer your questions thoroughly?
  • Did they seem educated and confident when they spoke?
  • Did they seem friendly and happy to help you?
  • Other notes:

Degree program:

  • Graduation rate:
  • Student reviews:
  • Credit hours needed to graduate:
  • Classes per semester:
  • Total time it will take to earn degree:
  • Class relevance: (Are the classes required relevant to the career you intend to pursue?)

Department contact info: (if necessary)

  • Department head:
  • Email:
  • Phone number:

Questions for department head:

  • Have they had a visually impaired student before?
  • If so, how did they accommodate for that student?
  • (Add questions specific to your area of study)

Your thoughts:

  • Did they take time to answer your questions thoroughly?
  • Did they seem educated and confident when they spoke?
  • Did they seem friendly and happy to help you?
  • Other notes:

Disability services contact info:

  • Low vision coordinator:
  • Email:
  • Phone:

Questions for disability services:

  • Testing policy:
  • Format for class materials (textbooks, modified assignments, etc.):
  • Ask about your specific accommodations.

Your thoughts:

  • Did they take time to answer your questions thoroughly?
  • Did they seem educated and confident when they spoke?
  • Did they seem friendly and happy to help you?
  • Other notes:

Overall experience with college/university: